Nebula Genomics offers "Deep Ancestry" as part of its Whole Genome Sequencing test. Your results for Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be transferred to YFull to get these ancestry reports.
Everybody has mitochondria. So in this article we will discuss mitochondrial DNA.
We will examine what mtDNA is and how it is inherited. Then we will find out how your mtDNA is interpreted and what you can learn about yourself and your ancestors.
I am going to tell you everything you need to know. Nobody has ever gone into this much detail about mitochondrial DNA at YFull, so get ready!
You'll even see that this is more than about deep ancestry. You will also be given tools to find the names of modern ancestors!
Your 23 pairs of chromosomes are located in the nucleus of the cell. Most genetic testing focuses on this nuclear DNA.
|mtDNA inheritance is shown in red|
Below is a four-generation photo of a great-grandmother, grandmother, mother and her seven children.
All of these people inherited the same mitochondrial DNA:
Why would you want to submit your
mitochondrial DNA results to YFull?
At YFull, your results will be compared to scientific samples and to people who tested at different companies.
- Find matches based on mtDNA
- mtDNA haplogroup determination
- Identification of all mitochondrial SNPs
- Positioning in MTree
- Regular updates
When you submit results to YFull you will see a menu of options for Y-DNA and for mtDNA. Here are the current options in the mtDNA menu:
|Haplogroup and SNPs|
|Click to go to YFull public mtDNA tree|
|Results from haplogroup HV4|
|Age of ancient DNA sample|
|YFull age estimation|
The additional tabs are + Known SNPs, + Novels, x Known SNPs, and x Novels. These are the known and novel SNPs that were used to estimate the haplogroup age, and the known and novel SNPs that were not used to calculate the age.
- The most recent haplogroups [called the MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor) branch]
- An estimated time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA -- this is a very broad estimate)
- The most distant ancestor of the person submitting the DNA sample. This will not be shown for scientific samples.
- The country of origin if reported
- The sample ID of the person who took the test
- Private Message link
|Send Private Message (PM)|
|List of YFull samples from scientific study|
Notice that the scientific study did not list the location of all samples, but it did for sample MF498722.1.
- The YFull ID
- The PM column
- The country and region of origin
- The haplogroup
- The list of mutations that are on the YFull Mitochondrial tree in the approximate order in which the mutations occurred
- The mutations that are not yet on the tree (shown to the right in blue)
|Mutations on MTree and those not yet on MTree|
The second sample above has one mutation that has not yet been placed on the YFull mtDNA tree.
Now I will search for a mutation that everybody in haplogroup U5 should have. This mutation is not listed on the group MReport because it occurred before haplogroup U5b1c was formed.
|List of mutations in YFull U5b1c mtDNA group|
|Scientific sample revision|
|Partial Genome in GenBank|
Here is the U5b1b1b group. They are from a completely different part of the world:
|Countries of origin|
And here's a third subclade of haplogroup U5 that is more diverse:
|Countries of origin|
As you can see in the three above images, these haplogroups are all subclades of the larger haplogroup U5. The ancestral origins continue to get more specific in the subclades.
|Ancestor with names, dates, and places|
The field size limits how much you can enter, but you can actually get quite creative:
|Subclades of haplogroup M8|
|Group administrator options|
|Group news description at YFull|
I administer several mtDNA groups. I guess you could call me an mtDNA freak! I have used all kinds of different descriptions in the "About this group" section. Here's one I used for Group background:
|Add scientific sample to group|
It is easiest if you have two screens open so that you can copy from the MTree and paste into your group.
|Review request to join group|
|Review group Join request|
|Email notice with comment from group administrator|
|Order mtDNA analysis at YFull|
|YFull mtDNA Groups|